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Greek

Translations into and from Greek

The term Ancient Greek refers to language forms and dialects that were in use between the introduction of Greek writing (c. 800 B.C.) and the beginning of the Hellenic period (c. 300 B.C.), and in literature at least, for much longer, up to the end of Classical Antiquity (in 600 A.D.). The literary Attic dialect of the 5th and 4th century before Christ is the standard for classic Ancient Greek.

Medieval Greek is the stage of the Greek language spanning the beginning of the Middle Ages around 600 and the Ottoman conquest of the city of Constantinople in 1453. The latter date marks the end of the Middle Ages for Southern Europe. From the 7th century, Greek was the state language of the Byzantine Empire and is thus also known as Byzantine Greek. The term Medieval Greek is used in English and Modern Greek.

For centuries, Greek was the most important lingua franca in the Eastern Mediterranean area and was also very widespread in the Latin West.

Modern Greek, the language of the Greeks, is the official language of both Greece and Cyprus. It is also recognised as a local official or school language in Turkey and in southern Balkan and southern Italian emigrant communities. Together with Greek and Cypriot immigrants, some 12.3 million people speak Greek as a native language worldwide. Modern Greek belongs to the Indo-European languages, yet is isolated within this family of languages and thus not closely related to any other language. Today, Modern Greek is generally referred to as Greek in many dictionaries and in the current context. An estimated 12 percent of the English vocabulary is of Greek origin.

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